# Fouls

There are 3 metrics that indicate how fouls factor into an individual's effectiveness:

Free Throw Rate (FTRate)

Fouls committed per 40 minutes played (FC/40)

Fouls drawn per 40 minutes played (FD/40)

## Free Throw Rate (FTRate)

Free throw rate measures a player's ability to get to the foul line relative to how often he attempts to score. It takes a players free throw attempts and divides those attempts by the player's total field goal attempts.

`FTRate = 100 * FTA / FGA`

For example, Duke's Marshall Plumlee's free throw rate was **99.3** in 2015-2016. This ranked 3rd amongst all Division-I players.

Plumlee attempted 153 free throws and 154 field goals.

`FTRate = 100 * 153 / 154 = 99.3`

## Fouls committed per 40 minutes played FC/40

This is a straight-forward stat that shows the amount of fouls a player commits per 40 minutes played.

`FC/40 = (Fouls committed / MP) * 40`

For example, Bryce Alford of UCLA committed **1.4 fouls** per 40 minutes in 2015-2016. This was 18th in the country.

Alford committed 41 fouls playing in 1159 minutes over the season.

`FC/40 = (41 / 1159) * 40 = 1.4`

## Fouls drawn per 40 minutes played (FD/40)

This is a stat developed by KenPom and explained more on this page. It makes several assumptions from Division-I averages, KenPom details below:

- each shooting foul results in an average of 1.8 free throws
- 16.3% of all fouls are committed by the offense
- no offensive foul results in a shot (this is not entirely true since some offensive fouls occur in rebounding situations)
- players on defense draw fouls at equal rates
- players on offense draw non-shooting fouls proportional to their percentage of possessions used

Applying all of these assumptions can give a fair estimate of a player's fouls drawn.

For example, Cal's Jaylen Brown drew **7 fouls** per 40 minutes played in 2015-2016. This **ranked 30th in the nation**.

Brown played in 959 minutes in 2015-2016 drawing about 166 fouls.

`FD/40 = (166 / 959) * 40 = 6.88`